From Active RFID Tag to Write Once: The most important terms and definitions.



From Active RFID Tag to Write Once: The most important terms and definitions.


Active RFID-Tag/RFID-Transponder
Designation of RFID tags with their own power supply. This enables a larger range between tag and reader of up to 500 m. Furthermore, additional functions are possible, e.g. temperature monitoring and acceleration measuring.


The RFID-antenna is part of an RFID technology system. It is needed for transmission of radio signals from the RFID reader device to the tag and vice versa. An RFID-antenna can be a part of its own in an RFID system (modular) or be integrated into the RFID reader device (compact device). With RFID-LF and RFID-HF systems the RFID-antenna is a coil that via inductive coupling supplies the RFID tag with energy.


American Standard Code for Information Interchange


Independent protocol for RFID products by Brooks Automation.

Auto ID

Automatic Identification and data collection. Technologies are called auto ID that automatically identify objects. RFID is one of these technologies.


Barcode/1D Barcode
Writing comprised of parallel spacings and lines of varying width. Here code means not encryption but the representation of data (e.g. numbers) als sequence of bars and spaces, that can be easily read by a machine. Barcode is automatically read by so-called scanners (e.g. by laser) or cameras. Sufficiently large Barcode can be read by a distance of several metres.

2D Barcode

In opposite to the 1D barcode information is not stored in a succession of bars but in planar patterns. Thereby more information including error correction data can be stored per area. There is many of different 2D barcodes. In public so-called QR code is often visible on posters, there it contains an URL.


RFID tag for ruminants that will be placed in the rumen and remain for the animal’s lifetime. This type of tag operates typically on a low fequency below 135 kHz that is not absorbed by water in the body.

Bulk Reading

Almost simultaneous reading of several tags by a RFID-reader. Due to collisions of the RF communications in fact the tags are not read exactly at the same time, but very fast in succession.


RFID-Chip Card
RFID-Chip Cards are all plastic RFID-cards containing an electronic RFID-chip. The RFID-chip can be of a simple logic circuitry with memory, but also a microprocessor. RFID-Chipcards can have contacts (e.g. credit cards) or be contact-less (e.g. by means of RFID).

RFID-Chip Coins

RFID tags in round design like coins. Can be easily handled by machines. Applied e.g. in public swimming baths and parking storeys.

Closed-Loop System

Circulation of RFID tags, e.g. in a department, at a premise or in a deposit system. Because of the solely usage within an enterprise one is not bound to keep to open standards.


Contactless Smart Card Technology
Credit card or loyalty card with RFID technology, that can be read contactless via radio at a short distance. It can be used for convenient identification as it can be read e.g. inside a wallet, that is the car must not be handled manually. With it a convenient door opener can be equipped. Now staff with both hands loaded must not set their load aside in order to identify them at a passage.


Electronic Article Surveillance
Operates with so-called 1 bit RFID-transponders. These RFID-transponders or labels only provide the information “RFID-transponder present” or “RFID-transponder not present”.


Electrically Eraseable Programmable Read-Only Memory
Non-volatile electronic memory, nowadays mostly with on-chip programming electronics to programm and erase data. Thereby the IC can remain in the circuitry. Successor of the EPROM that had to be erase usind UV light.


Electronic Product Code
Code for identification of goods in various types. In addition to the product type a unique serial number is also provided for every piece of article.


F-RAM (Ferroelectric RAM)
Ferroelectric Random Access Memory


Designation of an RFID card system and trade mark by Legic Identsystems.


Sequence of complex processes to gather the user data (ID no, user memory) from an RFID tag.


The maximum rate at which data can be read from a tag. It makes sense to give this value in bits or kilobits per second (kbs). This indicates the serial (one bit after the other) transmission of data.


RFID technology Systems working over greater distances (> 1 m).


Mobile Data Storage
Common abbreviation for RFID tags used in the German automotive industry.

Miller Code

On of verious codes used for data transmission between tag and reader.

Modulation Process

The most common modulation processes are amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM), which are also used in RFID technology. The wanted signal is modulated onto a so-called carrier rsp. the wanted signal influcenes the carrier so that tranmission of the wanted signal is possible. At the receiver the wanted signal is re-extracted by a demodulator. In this was analogue as well as digital signal can be transmitted.


Using a multiplexer several RFID-antennas can be operated by a single RFID-reader. Using a multiplexer prevents RFID-antennas from interfering with one another and reduce the cost for RFID readers, that otherwise would be needed to cover a larger area without multiplexers. Thus the user can reduce the total cost of the RFID system.


Nominal Range
Maximum reading distance at which a reliable readout of a RFID-tag is possible.


Objekt whose barcode or RFID tag could not be read.


RFID module without a housing of its own that will be built in other devices to add RFID functionality.


Plant Data Collection
Collective term for the collection of actual data on processes and objects in an enterprise.


The protocol allows communication between devices. It can be seen as the common language of both components.


RFID Device that measures a property of the environment (temperature, PH value, pressure, lightness, flow volume, …) and transfers this into an electronic signal (electric current, measuring data).


Ultra High Frequency
In general these are radio waves with a wavelength between 1 m and 10 cm, rsp. with frequencies of 0.3 GHz to 3 GHz. In special are the frequency ranges of 433 MHz and 866 to 950 MHz of interest, that are used for active and passive RFID tags. Also on 2.45 GHz are numerous applications active by now: microwave ovens, WLAN, radio data transmission and RFID systems.


Universal Product Code
This is the North American barcode standard, administered by the GS1 (former Uniform Code Council).


Wireless Local Area Network
Wireless local IT network on 2.45 GHz (ISM band), also on 5.15—5.35 GHz and 5.47—5.725 GHz newly.


Write Once/Read Many
Memory that can be written to only once and cannot be altered any longer. E.g. PROM, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, Blueray-ROM.